Exploring Fingerprint Patterns and Predicting Blood Group and Medical Conditions

How Many Fingerprint Patterns Are There?

No two people have identical fingerprints. The shape, size and number of minor details in each one make them unique.

This research paper will study about relationship patterns of different features of fingerprints with blood group and will analyze it with the help of Machine learning technique to predict blood group and common clinical diseases like hypertension, type 2 diabetes and arthritis.


Loops are one of the most common fingerprint patterns. They are described as edges that start from the center of a finger and circle around to the thumb side. These patterns can be grouped into several categories, including radial loops, spiral whorls, concentric whorls, and elongated whorls. Loops that open near the thumb are considered ulnar loops. They are also known as tented arches. The shape and size of a person’s fingerprints are unique to them. They don’t change with age, except in rare cases of injuries or plastic surgery.

Fingerprints are a reliable means of identification, as they do not change with time. They can be used to determine the blood type of an individual and are often analyzed for medical conditions such as arthritis and hypertension. However, determining the blood type from a fingerprint can be difficult because of the complexity of the ridge and valley details in the prints.

The present investigation aims to explore the association between the distribution of unique finger impression pattern (dermatoglyphic), blood group and sexual orientation. The results show that the recurrence of loops is highest among the participants with blood groups O and B, followed by whorl curve and composite, and lowest among the subjects with blood group AB.


Floral whorls are helical patterns of leaves or flowers, forming an appealing and visually intriguing structure. They are a vital component of the flower and may be classified as monoclamydeous, diclamydeous, or polyclamydeous. Each of these types have unique characteristics that help them to distinguish themselves from other flowers.

A recent study by Shivaleela et al. investigated the association between blood group and minute patterns of fingerprints to predict common clinical diseases. The experiment involved 25 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were either ischemic coronary or had the family ancestry of cardiovascular disorders. The researchers found that whorls were more prevalent in type 2 diabetics with ischemic coronary disease than those without it.

The investigation also analyzed dermatoglyphic markers of blood groups. It was discovered that loops are the most commonly seen fingerprint example, followed by whorls and curves. The frequency of loops was found to be higher in the O positive and B positive blood groups, while whorls were more prominent among those with the A negative blood group. In terms of gender, there was no significant difference in the occurrences of different patterns between men and women. However, occurrences of whorls were higher on the correct hands than the left. This is probably because of a stronger skeletal structure in the right hand.


It is important to understand that most natural arches are quite short-lived on geologic time scales. They are not nearly as old as some other features such as lava tubes or canyon walls. Therefore, it is difficult to determine their age with any degree of accuracy. In addition, most arch measurement techniques are unreliable. For example, steel tape measurements are inaccurate due to the flexing of the arch when it is measured and the fact that different points on an arch can be measured differently. Other less reliable methods include pacing, visual estimates, differential GPS and comparison to other objects of known size.

The majority of the ridgelines in an arch pattern will stream into the print from one side, ascend like a tented arch and then bend back around and stream out the opposite side from where they entered. There are two kinds of arches: plain and tented. The former are found in five percent of all fingerprint patterns while the latter is found in just a few percent.

An individual’s fingerprint pattern is unique to that person. The chance of indistinguishable twins with the same fingerprint pattern is one in six million. Moreover, fingerprint minutiae do not change with age, even after death. This uniqueness makes fingerprint proof the most dependable type of evidence in a court case.

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